Thermal power plant EIA formats

  1. Form1
  2. Terms of Reference (ToR)
  3. Environmental Impact Assessment Report


1. Basic Information

  • Name of project:
  • Nature:
  • Proposed capacity:
  • Nearest town/city/railway  station/airport along with distance in kms:
  • Village Panchayat/ZillaParishad/Municipal Corporation/Local Body with postal address and contact nos:
  • Details if the project involves approval/clearance under:
  1. The Forest (Conservation) Act 1980
  2. The Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 and
  3. The CRZ Notification 1991
  • Details of alternative sites examined, if any, along with topo sheet:
  • Interlinked projects and details of application for interlinked projects submitted:
  • Name, address and designation of the Applicant:
  • Information on Government Order/Policy relating to the site:
  1. Forest Land
  2. Particulars on any litigation pending against the project/land

2. Activity Details

  • Construction
  • Operation or Decommissioning of the project involving actions which will cause physical changes in the locality- Topography, Land Use, Charges in water bodies and Others
  • Permanent or Temporary Change in land use
  • Cover or Topography including increase in intensity of land use (with respect to local land use plan)
  • Clearance of existing land
  • Vegetation and Buildings
  • Creation of new land uses
  • Pre-construction investigations -Bore wells, Soil testing and Others
  • Construction works
  • Demolition works
  • Temporary sites used for construction works or housing of construction workers Above ground buildings structures or earthworks including linear structures
  • Cut and fill or excavations
  • Underground works including mining, tunnelling
  • Reclamation works
  • Dredging
  • Offshore structures
  • Production and Manufacturing Processes
  • Facilities for storage of goods or materials
  • Facilities for treatment or disposal of solid waste or liquid effluents
  • Facilities for long term housing of operational workers
  • New road
  • Rail or Sea traffic during construction or operation
  • New road, rail, air, waterborne or other transport infrastructure including new or altered routes and stations, Ports Airports etc;
  • Closure or Diversion of existing transport routes or infrastructure leading to changes in traffic movements
  • New or diverted transmission lines or pipelines
  • Impoundment/damming/culverting
  • Realignment or other changes to the hydrology of watercourses or aquifers 
  • Stream crossings
  • Abstraction or transfers of water form ground or surface waters
  • Changes in water bodies or the land surface affecting drainage or run-off
  • Transport of personnel or materials for construction; operation or decommissioning Long-term dismantling or decommissioning or restoration works
  • Ongoing activity during decommissioning which could have an impact on the environment
  • Influx of people to an area either temporarily or permanently
  • Introduction of alien species
  • Loss of native species or genetic diversity
  • Any other activities

3. Use of Natural Resources including Source Information &Data

  • Land -especially undeveloped or agricultural land - in Hectares
  • Water - expected source & competing users - in units KiloLitres/Day
  • Minerals in Metric Tonnes
  • Construction material – stone, aggregates, sand / soil -expected source – in Metric Tonnes
  • Forests and Timber -source – in Metric Tonnes
  • Energy - electricity and fuels including source, competing users – Unit for fuel in in Metric Tonnes and for electricity in MegaWatts
  • Any other natural resource (use appropriate standard units)

4. Storage, Transport, Handling or Production of Substances harmful to human health or environment

  • Changes in occurrence of disease
  • Affect disease vectors (e.g. insect or water borne diseases)
  • Affect the welfare of people (e.g. by changing living conditions)
  • Vulnerable groups of people who could be affected by the project (e.g. hospital patients, children, theelderly etc)
  • Any other causes

5. Production of Solid Waste during Construction/ Operation / Decommissioning

  • Spoil
  • Overburden or Mine Waste
  • Municipal Waste (domestic and or commercial waste)
  • Hazardous Wastes (as per Hazardous Waste Management Rules)
  • Other Industrial Process Waste
  • Surplus Produce
  • Sewage Sludge or Other Sludge from effluent treatment
  • Construction or Demolition Waste
  • Redundant Machinery or Equipment
  • Contaminated Soils or other materials
  • Agricultural Waste
  • Other Solid Waste

6. Release of pollutants or any hazardous; toxic or noxious substances to air

  • Emissions from combustion of fossil fuels from stationary or mobile sources
  • Emissions from production processes
  • Emissions from materials handling including storage or transport
  • Emissions from construction activities including plant and equipment
  • Dust or odour from handling of materials including construction material, sewage and waste
  • Emissions from incineration of waste
  • Emissions from burning of waste in open air (e.g.slash materials; construction debris);
  • Emissions from any Other Source

7. Generation of Noise and Vibration and Emissions of Light and Heat

  • From operation of equipment (e.g. engines, ventilation plant, crushers)
  • From industrial or similar processes
  • From construction or demolition
  • From blasting or piling
  • From construction or operational traffic
  • From lighting or cooling systems
  • From any other sources

8. Risk of Contamination of Land or Water

  • Release of pollutant into the ground / sewers / surface waters / groundwater / coastal waters / sea
  • From handling, storage, use or spillage of hazardous materials
  • From discharge of sewage or other effluents to water or the land (expected mode and place of discharge)
  • By deposition of pollutants emitted to air into the land or into water
  • From long-term build up of pollutants from these sources, in the environment
  • From other sources

9. Risk of Accidents during Construction or Operation which could affect human health or environment

  • From explosions, spillages, fires etc
  • From storage handling use or production of hazardous substances
  • From any other causes, including natural disasters causing environmental damage like earthquakes, floods etc

10. Factors that could lead to Environmental Effects or the potential for Cumulative Impacts in the locality

  • Lead to development of supporting ancillary development or development stimulated by the project which could have impact on the environment (e.g.; supporting infrastructure, roads power supply, waste or waste water treatment, etc.)
  • Housing Development
  • Extractive industries
  • Supply industries;
  • Others
  • Lead to after-use of the site; which could have an impact on the environment
  • Set a precedent for later developments
  • Have cumulative effects due to proximity to other existing or planned projects with similar effects

11. Environmental Sensitivity

  • Areas protected under international conventions; national or local legislation for their ecological landscape, cultural or other related value
  • Areas which are important or sensitive for ecological reasons – wetlands, watercourses or other water bodies, coastal zone, biospheres, mountains and forests
  • Areas used by protected important or sensitive species of flora or fauna for breeding, nesting, foraging, resting, over wintering, migration
  • Inland, coastal, marine or underground waters
  • State, national boundaries
  • Routes or facilities used by the public for access to recreation or other tourist pilgrim areas
  • Defence installations
  • Densely populated or built-up area
  • Areas occupied by sensitive man-made land uses (e.g.hospitals; schools; places of worship; community facilities)
  • Areas containing important, high quality or scarce resources (e.g. ground water resources, surface resources, forestry, agriculture, fisheries, tourism, minerals)
  • Areas already subjected to pollution or environmental damage and where existing legal environmental standards are exceeded
  • Areas susceptible to natural hazard which could cause the project to present environmental problems (e.g. earthquakes, subsidence, landslides, erosion,

flooding or extreme or adverse climatic conditions)

12. Proposed Terms of Reference (ToR)

Following this; an affidavit stating;

“I hereby give undertaking that the data and information given in the Application and enclosures are true to the best of my knowledge and belief and I am aware that if any part of data and information submitted is found to be false or misleading at any stage; the project will be rejected and clearance given; if any; to the project; will be revoked at our risk and cost”

Date:                                                                          Signature of the Applicant


Place:                                                                         With name and full address to be submitted.





With regard to projects involving clearance under CRZ Notification 1991, the following are to be submitted along with the Application-

  1. A CRZ map duly demarcated by an authorized agency showing Project Activities with reference to CRZ (at the stage of ToR)
  2. Recommendations of the State Coastal Zone Management Authority (before issue of EC)

With regard to projects located within 10 kms of National Parks, Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves and Migratory Corridors of Wild Animals the following are to be submitted along with the Application-

  1. A Map duly authenticated by the Chief Wildlife Warden showing these features and project location
  2. Comments of the Chief Wildlife Warden

Typical Terms of Reference

  1. Vision document specifying prospective long term plan of the site, if any, shall be formulated and submitted
  2. Status of compliance to the conditions stipulated for environmental and CRZ clearances of the previous phase(s), as applicable, shall be submitted
  3. Executive summary of the project indicating relevant details along with recent photographs of the approved site shall be provided.
  4. Response to the issues raised during Public Hearing and to the written representations (if any), along with a time bound Action Plan and budgetary allocations to address the same, shall be provided in a tabular form, against each action proposed
  5. Harnessing solar power within the premises of the plant particularly at available roof tops and other available areas shall be formulated and status of implementation shall be submitted to the Ministry
  6. The coordinates of the approved site including location of ash pond shall be submitted along with topo sheet (1:50,000 scale) and confirmed GPS readings of plant boundary and NRS satellite map of the area, shall be submitted. Elevation of plant site and ash pond with respect to HFL of water body/nallah/river shall be specified, if the site is located in proximity to them
  7. Layout plan indicating break-up of plant area, ash pond, area for green belt, infrastructure, roads etc. shall be provided
  8. Land requirement for the project shall be optimized and in any case not more than what has been specified by CEA from time to time. Item wise break up of land requirement and revised layout (as modified by the EAC) shall be provided
  9. Present land use as per the revenue records (free of all encumbrances of the proposed site, shall be furnished. Information on land to be acquired) if any, for coal transportation system as well as for laying of pipeline including ROW shall be specifically stated
  10. The issues relating to land acquisition and R&R scheme with a time bound Action Plan should be formulated and clearly spelt out in the EIA report
  11. Satellite imagery or authenticated topo sheet indicating drainage, cropping pattern, water bodies (wetland, river system, stream, nallahs, ponds etc.), location of nearest villages, creeks, mangroves, rivers, reservoirs etc. in the study area shall be provided
  12. Location of any National Park, Sanctuary, Elephant/Tiger Reserve (existing as well as proposed), migratory routes / wildlife corridor, if any, within 10 km of the project site shall be specified and marked onthe map duly authenticated by the Office of the Chief Wildlife Warden of the area concerned
  13. Topography of the study area supported by toposheet on 1:50,000 scale of Survey of India, along with a large scale map preferably of 1:25,000 scale and the specific information whether the site requires any filling shall be provided. In that case, details of filling, quantity of fill material required; its source, transportation etc. shall be submitted
  14. A detailed study on land use pattern in the study area shall be carried out including identification of common property resources (such as grazing and community land, water resources etc.) available and Action Plan for its protection and management shall be formulated. If acquisition of grazing land is involved, it shall be ensured that an equal area of grazing land to be acquired is developed alternatively and details plan shall be submitted
  15. A mineralogical map of the proposed site (including soil type) and information (if available) that the site is not located on economically feasible mineable mineral deposit shall be submitted.
  16. Details of 100% fly ash utilization plan as per latest fly ash Utilization Notification of GOI along with firm agreements / MoU with contracting parties including other usages etc. shall be submitted. The plan shall also include disposal method / mechanism of bottom ash.
  17. Water requirement, calculated as per norms stipulated by CEA from time to time, shall be submitted along with water balance diagram. Details of water balance calculated shall take into account reuse and re-circulation of effluents which shall be explicitly specified.
  18. Water body/nallah (if any) passing across the site should not be disturbed as far as possible. In case any nallah / drain has to be diverted, it shall be ensured that the diversion does not disturb the natural drainage pattern of the area. Details of diversion required shall be furnished which shall be duly approved by the concerned department.
  19. It shall also be ensured that a minimum of 500 m distance of plant boundary is kept from the HFL of river system / streams etc.
  20. Hydro-geological study of the area shall be carried out through an institute/ organisation of repute to assess the impact on ground and surface water regimes. Specific mitigation measures shall be spelt out and time bound Action Plan for its implementation shall be submitted.
  21. Detailed Studies on the impacts of the ecology including fisheries of the river/estuary/sea due to the proposed withdrawal of water / discharge of treated wastewater into the river/creek/ sea etc shall be carried out and submitted along with the EIA Report. In case of requirement of marine impact assessment study, the location of intake and outfall shall be clearly specified along with depth of water drawl and discharge into open sea.
  22. Source of water and its sustainability even in lean season shall be provided along with details of ecological impacts arising out of withdrawal of water and taking into account inter-state shares (if any). Information on other competing sources downstream of the proposed project. Commitment regarding availability of requisite quantity of water from the Competent Authority shall be provided along with letter / document stating firm allocation of water.
  23. Detailed plan for carrying out rainwater harvesting and its proposed utilisation in the plant shall be furnished.
  24. Feasibility of zero discharge concept shall be critically examined and its details submitted.
  25. Optimization of COC along with other water conservation measures in the project shall be specified.
  26. Plan for recirculation of ash pond water and its implementation shall be submitted.
  27. Detailed plan for conducting monitoring of water quality regularly with proper maintenance of records shall be formulated. Detail of methodology and identification of monitoring points (between the plant and drainage in the direction of flow of surface / ground water) shall be submitted. It shall be ensured that parameter to be monitored also include heavy metals.
  28. Socio-economic study of the study area comprising of 10 km from the plant site shall be carried out by a reputed institute / agency which shall consist of detail assessment of the impact on livelihood of local  communities.
  29. Action Plan for identification of local employable youth for training in skills, relevant to the project, for eventual employment in the project itself shall be formulated and numbers specified during construction & operation phases of the Project.
  30. If the area has tribal population it shall be ensured that the rights of Tribals are well protected. TheProject Proponent shall accordingly identify tribal issues under various provisions of the law of the land.
  31. A detailed CSR plan along with activities wise break up of financial commitment shall be prepared. CSR component shall be identified considering need based assessment study. Sustainable income generating measures which can help in upliftment of poor section of society, which is consistent with the traditional skills of the people shall be identified. Separate budget for community development activities and income generating programmes shall be specified.
  32. While formulating CSR schemes it shall be ensured that an in-built monitoring mechanism for the schemes identified are in place and mechanism for conducting annual social audit from the nearest government institute of repute in the region shall be prepared. TheProject Proponent shall also provide Action Plan for the status of implementation of the scheme from time to time and dovetail the same with any Govt. scheme(s). CSR details done in the past should be clearly spelt out in case of expansion projects.
  33. R&R plan, as applicable, shall be formulated wherein mechanism for protecting the rights and livelihood of the people in the region who are likely to be impacted, is taken into consideration. R&R plan shall be formulated after a detailed census of population based on socio economic surveys who were dependant on land falling in the project, as well as, population who were dependant on land not owned by them.
  34. Assessment of occupational health as endemic diseases of environmental origin shall be carried out and Action Plan to mitigate the same shall be prepared.
  35. Occupational health and safety measures for the workers including identification of work related health hazards shall be formulated. The company shall engage full time qualified doctors who are trained in occupational health. Health monitoring of the workers shall be conducted at periodic intervals and health records maintained. Awareness programme for workers due to likely adverse impact on their health due to working in non-conducive environment shall be carried out and precautionary measures like use of personal equipments etc. shall be provided. Review of impact of various health measures undertaken at intervals of two years shall be conducted with an excellent follow up plan of action wherever required.
  36. One complete season site specific meteorological and AAQ data (except monsoon season) as per MoEF Notification dated 16.11.2009 shall be collected and the dates of monitoring recorded. The parameters to be covered for AAQ shall include SPM, RSPM (PM10, PM2.5), SO2, NOx, Hg and O3 (ground level). The location of the monitoring stations should be so decided so as to take into consideration the pre-dominant downwind direction, population zone, villages in the vicinity and sensitive receptors including reserved forests. There should be at least one monitoring station each in the upwind and in the pre – dominant downwind direction at a location where maximum ground level concentration is likely to occur.
  37. A list of industries existing and proposed in the study area shall be furnished.
  38. Cumulative impact of all sources of emissions (including transportation) on the AAQ of the area shall be well assessed. Details of the Model used and the input data used for modelling shall also be provided. The air quality contours should be plotted on a location map showing the location of project site, habitation nearby, sensitive receptors, if any. The wind roses should also be shown on the location map as well.
  39. Radioactivity and heavy metal contents of coal to be sourced shall be examined and submitted along with laboratory reports.
  40. Fuel analysis shall be provided. Details of auxillary fuel, if any, including its quantity, quality, storage etc should also be furnished.
  41. Quantity of fuel required, its source and characteristics and documentary evidence to substantiate confirmed fuel linkage shall be furnished.
  42. Details of transportation of fuel from the source (including port handling) to the proposed plant and its impact on ambient AAQ shall be suitably assessed and submitted. If transportation entails a long distance it shall be ensured that rail transportation to the site shall be first assessed. Wagon loading at source shall preferably be through silo/conveyor belt.
  43. For proposals based on imported coal, inland transportation and port handling and rolling stocks /rail movement bottlenecks shall be critically examined and details furnished.
  44. Details regarding infrastructure facilities such as sanitation, fuel, restrooms, medical facilities, safety during construction phase etc. to be provided to the labour force during construction as well as to the casual workers including truck drivers during operation phase should be adequately catered for and details furnished.
  45. EMP to mitigate the adverse impacts due to the project along with item - wise cost of its implementation in a time bound manner shall be specified.
  46. A Disaster Management Plan (DMP) along with risk assessment study including fire and explosion issues due to storage and use of fuel should be carried out. It should take into account the maximum inventory of storage at site at any point of time. The risk contours should be plotted on the plant layout map clearly showing which of the proposed activities would be affected in case of an accident taking place. Based on the same, proposed safeguard measures should be provided. Measures to guard against fire hazards should also be invariably provided.
  47. The DMP so formulated shall include measures against likely Tsunami/Cyclones/Storm Surges/Earthquakes etc, as applicable. It shall be ensured that DMP consists of both on-site and off-site plan, complete with details of containing likely disaster and shall specifically mention personnel identified for the task. Smaller version of the plan shall be prepared both in English and local languages.
  48. Detailed plan for raising green belt of native species of appropriate width (50 to 100 m) and consisting of at least 3 tiers around plant boundary (except in areas not possible) with tree density of 2000 to 2500 trees per ha with a good survival rate of about 80% shall be submitted. Photographic evidence must be created and submitted periodically including NRSA reports.
  49. Over and above the green belt, as carbon sink, additional plantation shall be carried out in identified blocks of degraded forests, in close consultation with the District Forests Department. In pursuance to this the project Project Proponent shall formulate time bound Action Plans along with financial allocation and shall submit status of implementation to the Ministry every six months.
  50. Corporate Environment Policy
    1. Does the company has a well laid down Environment Policy approved by its Board of Directors? If so, it may be detailed in the EIA report.
    2. Does the Environment Policy prescribe for standard operating process / procedures to bring into focus any infringement / deviation / violation of the environmental or forest norms / conditions? If so, it may be detailed in the EIA.
    3. What is the hierarchical system or Administrative order of the company to deal with the environmental issues and for ensuring compliance with the environmental clearance conditions. Details of this system may be given.
    4. Does the company has system of reporting of non compliances /violations of environmental norms to the Board of Directors of the company and / or shareholders or stakeholders at large? This reporting mechanism should be detailed in the EIA report.
  51. All the above details should be adequately brought out in the EIA report and in the presentation to the Committee.
  52. Details of litigation pending or otherwise with respect to project in any court, tribunal etc. shall invariably be furnished.

Additional TOR points for Coast-Based TPPs:

In addition to the general conditions specified above, the following should also be strictly followed (as applicable):

  1. Low lying areas fulfilling the definition wetland as per Ramsar Convention shall be identified and clearly demarcated w.r.t the proposed site.
  2. If the site includes or is located close to marshy areas and backwaters, these areas must be excluded from the site and the project boundary should be away from the CRZ line. Authenticated CRZ map from any of the authorized agency shall be submitted.
  3. The soil levelling should be minimum with no or minimal disturbance to the natural drainage of the area. If the minor canals (if any) have to be diverted, the design for diversion should be such that the diverted canals not only drains the plant area but also collect the volume of flood water from the surrounding areas and discharge into marshy areas/major canals that enter into creek. Major canals should not be altered but their bunds should be strengthened and de-silted.
  4. Additional soil for leveling of the sites should be generated as far as possible within the sites, in a way that natural drainage system of the area is protected and improved
  5. Marshy areas which hold large quantities of flood water shall be identified and shall not be disturbed.
  6. No waste should be discharged into Creek, Canal systems, Backwaters, Marshy areas and seas without appropriate treatment. The outfall should be first treated in a guard pond (wherever feasible) and then discharged into deep sea (10 to 15 m depth). Similarly, the intake should be from deep sea to avoid aggregation of fish and in no case shall be from the estuarine zone. The brine that comes out from desalinization plants (if any) should not be discharged into sea without adequate dilution.
  7. Mangrove conservation and regeneration plan shall be formulated and Action Plan with details of time bound implementation shall be specified, if mangroves are present in study area.
  8. A common Green Endowment Fund should be created by the project Project Proponents out of EMP budgets. The interest earned out of it should be used for the development and management of green cover of the area.
  9. Impact on fisheries at various socio economic level shall be assessed.
  10. An endowment of Fishermen Welfare Fund should be created out of CSR grants not only to enhance their quality of life through creation of facilities for fish landing platforms / fishing harbour / cold storage, but also to provide relief in case of emergency situations such as missing of fishermen on duty due to rough seas, tropical cyclones and storms etc.
  11. Tsunami Emergency Management Plan shall be prepared and plan submitted prior to the commencement of construction work.
  12. There should not be any contamination of soil, ground and surface waters (canals & village pond) with sea water in and around the project sites. In other words necessary preventive measures for spillage from pipelines, such as lining of guard pond used for the treatment of outfall before discharging into the sea and surface RCC channels along the pipelines of outfall and intake should be adopted. This is just because the areas around the projects boundaries is fertile agricultural land used for paddy cultivation.

Environmental Impact Assessment Report

EIA Structure



  1. Purpose of the Report
  2. Identification of Project & Project Proponent
  3. Brief Description of the Project -nature, size, location, its importance to the country or region
  4. Scope of the Study (As per ToR)

Project Description

  1. Description of those aspects of the Project that are likely to cause environmental effects.
  2. Details should give clear picture of the following:
  • Type
  • Need
  • Location (maps showing location. project boundary; site layout)
  • Size of Operation
  • Proposed Schedule for Approval and Implementation
  • Technology and Process
  1. Project Description (including drawings showingproject layout, etc.)
  2. Schematic Representations (including feasibility drawings which give informationimportant for purpose of EIA)
  3. Mitigation measures (to meet environmental standards and other EIA requirements)
  4. Assessment of New & Untested technology (for the risk of technological failure)

Description of the Environment

  1. Study Area
  2. Period
  3. Components & Methodology
  4. Establishment of Baseline (for valued environmental componentsas identified in the scope)
  5. Base Maps of all environmental components

Anticipated Environmental Impacts &

Mitigation Measures

  1. Details of Investigated Environmental Impacts due to various aspects like:
  • Location
  • Design
  • Construction
  • Regular Operations
  • Final Decommissioning or Rehabilitation (of a completed project)
  1. Measures for Minimizing / Offsetting Identified Adverse Impacts
  2. Irreversible Commitments of environmental components
  3. Assessment of Significance of Impacts
  4. Mitigation Measures

Analysis of Alternatives (Technology

& Site)

Details for each Alternative (if Scoping indicates need for alternatives)

  1. Description
  2. Summary of Adverse Impacts
  3. ProposedMitigation Measures
  4. Selection of Alternative

Environmental Monitoring Program

Technical aspects of monitoring effectiveness of mitigation measures include:

  • Measurement Methodologies
  • Frequency
  • Location
  • Data Analysis
  • Reporting Schedules
  • Emergency Procedures;
  • Detailed Budget
  • Procurement Schedules

Additional Studies

  • Public Consultation
  • Risk Assessment
  • Social Impact Assessment

Project Benefits

Improvements in Physical and Social Infrastructure
Employment Potential (skilled/ semi-skilled / unskilled)
Other Tangible Benefits

Environmental Cost Benefit Analysis

If recommended during Scoping


Description of the Administrative Aspects after approval of the EIA to ensure implementation of mitigation measures and monitoring their effectiveness

Summary & Conclusion (This will constitute the Summary of the EIA Report)

• Overall Justification for implementation of the project
• Explanation of mitigation of adverse effects

Disclosure of Consultants engaged

Details of the consultants engaged including:
Brief Resume 
Nature of Consultancy


Contents of Executive Summary of EIA Report

The ExecutiveSummary of EIA Report shall be a summary of the full EIA report condensed to 10 A4 size pages maximum. It should necessarily cover in brief the following chapters of the full EIA Report:

  1. Project Description
  2. Description of the Environment
  3. Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
  4. Environmental Monitoring Programme
  5. Additional Studies
  6. Project Benefits
  7. Environment Management Plan